Alchemist

Alchemist Inhaltsverzeichnis

Der Alchimist ist ein Roman des brasilianischen Schriftstellers Paulo Coelho. Er erschien unter dem Originaltitel „O Alquimista“. Die deutsche Erstausgabe erschien im Verlag Peter Erd. Der Roman verkaufte sich zwar gut, war aber lange. Alchemist oder Alchimist (von altägyptisch khem für „schwarz“) steht für: Alchemie praktizierende Person; Alchemist (Band), australische Metal-Band. Alchemie oder Alchimie (auch Alchymie; griechisch-arabisch-mittellateinisch alkimia, neulateinisch alchymia, frühneuhochdeutsch alchimei, alchemey). Herzlich willkommen bei Alchemist! Reinstoffe, Substanzgemische und Laborhilfsmittel für Forschung, Lehre und Hobby in den Bereichen Aquaristik, Botanik. The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho continues to change the lives of its readers forever. With more than two million copies sold.

Alchemist

Herzlich willkommen bei Alchemist! Reinstoffe, Substanzgemische und Laborhilfsmittel für Forschung, Lehre und Hobby in den Bereichen Aquaristik, Botanik. Das Ziel der praktischen Alchemie war es, Stoffe für den täglichen Bedarf herzustellen. Euch sind ganz sicher einige chemische Verfahren, die im täglichen Leben. Der Alchimist ist ein Roman des brasilianischen Schriftstellers Paulo Coelho. Er erschien unter dem Originaltitel „O Alquimista“. Die deutsche Erstausgabe erschien im Verlag Peter Erd. Der Roman verkaufte sich zwar gut, war aber lange. Alchemist

View all 35 comments. Utter drivel. The book was badly written, righteous, condescending, preachy, and worst of all, the ending was morally questionable.

All the fables and stories are stolen from elsewhere, religious ideas and spirituality are badly mixed, and everything is so obvious. The book harps on about tapping into the Soul of the World, the Language of the World, about your one true path and other nonsense.

The basic idea is that if you really want something and "listen to your heart", the whole universe will Utter drivel.

The basic idea is that if you really want something and "listen to your heart", the whole universe will help you achieve it if you only look for omens.

A questionable idea in a world where people no longer want to work hard and achieve independently. It reads like a really bad self-help book written for 8 year old children and disguised as a symbolic parable.

I read a lot of books and I can safely say this is the worst book I have ever read. It's only saving grace was that it was mercifully short.

The problem with this book is not just that it's bad, which it certainly is, but that there are so many people out there who want to corner you at parties and tell you how it's totally changed their lives.

The profound lessons you'll learn from this book amount to nothing more than several variations on the theme of "only The problem with this book is not just that it's bad, which it certainly is, but that there are so many people out there who want to corner you at parties and tell you how it's totally changed their lives.

The profound lessons you'll learn from this book amount to nothing more than several variations on the theme of "only the very ugly is truly beautiful, only the very stupid are really intelligent, only black is white, only up is down" etc etc.

The writing is too simple to be really bad, but it's the content that gets you. By the end of the book you'll want to track down the philosopher's stone yourself and carefully beat Coelho to death with it.

I read this book about three years ago and just had to re-read it for book club. It was a steaming pile of crap then and, guess what?

The main reason I hate this book: it's trite inspirational literature dressed up as an adventure quest. You go into it thinking that it's going to be about a boy's quest for treasure.

If you read the back, there are words like "Pyramids," "Gypsy," "alchemist. It's Hallmark Hall of Fame territory set in an exotic locale.

Which pisses me off to no end as I normally try to dodge that sort of thing, but here it is masquerading as the type of book I normally like. It's cliche, didactic, and poorly written.

Just as with Aesop's Fables , there's a moral to the story. And Coelho keeps backing up and running over it just to make sure that we get it and he capitalizes important key words necessary to understanding it, lest we overlook their significance.

If there's one thing Paulo Coelho can do, it's flog a dead horse. Essentially, boy thinks he's happy in life. He's a shepherd who gets to travel the world, has all of his needs met, and owns a book which he can always trade for another book when he goes to market.

What more can a boy need? Boy is then told by a mysterious stranger that he's not happy at all. Why not? He has failed to recognize his Personal Legend.

Everyone has a Personal Legend, which is life's plan for you. However, most of us give up on our Personal Legend in childhood. If you are fortunate enough to hang onto and pursue your Personal Legend, then The Soul of the World will help you obtain it.

All of nature conspires to bring you luck and good fortune so that you can fulfill your destiny, whether it's to be a shepherd on a quest for treasure at the pyramids, a butcher, a baker, a candlestick maker, or, one would assume, a prostitute, drug dealer, or porn star.

Hey, we're all fate's bitch in The Alchemist. But I digress. Boy seeks out his Personal Legend and finds it's a long, hard road to obtaining what you want in life.

But with faith, perseverance, and just a little goshdarnit good luck, the boy learns to speak the Language of the World and tap into The Soul of the World and fulfills his Personal Legend.

And what does he learn? That what he sought was back home, the place he started from. Oh, silly boy. So, in summation, here is what you should learn from The Alchemist : 1 Dream.

And, while you're at it, dream BIG 2 Follow your bliss 3 Don't be surprised if you find obstacles in your way, but you will overcome 4 It's good to travel and encounter people from other cultures 5 What we most often seek is right in front of us, but sometimes we have to leave home to realize it To all of these important life lessons, I can only say, "Well, no shit, Sherlock.

Alas, it's still crap. Cross posted at This Insignificant Cinder View all 58 comments. View all 18 comments. His quest will lead him to riches far different—and far more satisfying—than he ever imagined.

Santiago's journey teaches us about the essential wisdom of listening to our hearts, of recognizing opportunity and learning to read the omens strewn along life's path, and, most importantly, to follow our dreams.

It's the possibility of having a dream come true that makes life interesting. But, I understand why people are so passionate in their dislike of this work.

Paul Coelho looks to inspire passion in people with The Alchemist. The Alchemist is a novel that combines an atmosphere of medieval mysticism with the voice of the desert -- dreams, symbols, signs, and adventure follow Santiago and the reader like echoes of ancient wise voices.

With this symbolic novel Coelho states that we should not avoid our destinies, and urges people to follow their dreams, because to find our "Personal Myth" and our mission on Earth is the way to find God, meaning happiness, fulfillment, and the ultimate purpose of creation.

The novel tells the tale of Santiago, a boy who has a dream and the courage to follow it. After listening to "the signs" the boy ventures in his personal, journey of exploration and self-discovery, searching for a hidden treasure located near the pyramids in Egypt.

In his journey, Santiago sees the greatness of the world, and meets all kinds of exciting people like kings and alchemists.

However, by the end of the novel, he discovers that "treasure lies where your heart belongs", and that the treasure was the journey itself, the discoveries he made, and the wisdom he acquired.

As the alchemist himself says when he appears to Santiago in the form of an old king "when you really want something to happen, the whole universe conspires so that your wish comes true".

This is the core of the novel's theme. Isn't it true that all of us want to believe the old king when he says that the greatest lie in the world is that at some point we lose the ability to control our lives, and become the pawns of fate.

Fear, fear of failure seems to be the greatest obstacle to happiness. This is where Coelho really captures the drama of man, who sacrifices fulfillment to conformity, who knows he can achieve greatness but denies doing so, and ends up living an empty shell of a life.

The Alchemist is a novel that will not appeal to everybody. Not everyone will identify with Santiago. We all have dreams, and are praying for somebody to tell us they can come true.

The novel skillfully combines words of wisdom, philosophy, and simplicity of meaning and language, and this is what makes it so enchanting.

View all 29 comments. This is either a beautifully written and fable-like illustration of simple and universal truths or a load of crap.

Similarly, the Credence Clearwater Revival song Looking Out My Backdo This is either a beautifully written and fable-like illustration of simple and universal truths or a load of crap.

Similarly, the Credence Clearwater Revival song Looking Out My Backdoor, a clunky but loveable country western tune, was actually begun as a facetious parody of slide guitar yokel lyricism.

Was it really so bad it was funny? If it was so obviously corny and insincere, was that not funny?

Or was it? Was he really wrestling women and then getting beaten up by Jerry Lawler? That was a joke right? Now … think about it for a second.

Was Coelho telling this straight or pulling our leg? I have to say that I doubt it, but I did laugh a few times and the over the top syrupy delivery made me wonder, and maybe I liked it better considering this twinkle of a third possibility.

I will say that this could go either way. I can absolutely see where someone could find hidden treasure and deeply meaningful messages in the short novel.

And I can see someone rolling their eyes and sticking their finger down their throat in a gag gesture. View all 59 comments. Its all about following your dream and about taking the risk of following your dreams, which is actually so difficult to do and there are very few people in this world who actually do, I mean risk it all, just to follow your heart and your dream.

Also, he talks about a stage in our journey towards realizing our dreams, where everything just goes haywire and there is everything working against us and it almost takes us to the brink of abandoning everything and just getting back to what was so familiar and comfortable i.

The example given was really great and yes nothing new but we forget simple things in our life like "the darkest hour of the night is just before the dawn".

It is actually true that so many of us just leave the struggle when it gets really tough and the chips are really low, whereas actually we were so close to the objective, if only we would have had a little more patience we would have been there.

In one of the episodes he talks about death, yes the fact we always forget, the only reality about our life, it is a constant which is not going to change rest everything is uncertain.

Yes, and those who do think about death, mostly fear it, some fear death because of the physical pain attached to it such people actually fear the pain rather than the death, I am one of them and there are some who think they do not want to die because its not time yet for them to go.

Ironically but true, this decision about timings has thankfully not been left to us. So, how do we get over the fear of death or make it our friend, a companion?

And not waste our beautiful life worrying about dying all the time. One of the possible solutions lies in this book, it reads "if i have to fight, it will be just as good a day to die as any other".

Yes very much right, one would never know when he or she wakes up in the morning that if it was the last day of his or her life and in fact, that day would not be any different from all the other days already spent.

So, why not take everyday as the last day of our lives and live it up. Here, everyday can be the last day of my life, every meal can be my last, every call to my wife can be the last time I would hear her sweet and loving voice and the kids… Anyways, so what I personally follow is, everyday when I wake up or every time when I move out on an operation, I say to myself "what a beautiful day to die" and there on, I just do what I have to and what I have been taught in all these years in the army and go through all the motions and concentrate on the job at hand rather than worrying about my death and I am really at peace with the fear of death.

Another beautiful thought which I came across about death was in the novel by the author called "Confessions of a pilgrim".

I derived from it that death can be visualized as a beautiful person who is always sitting besides us, so close to us that it travels with us wherever we go and it also accompanies us to our bed.

Its a beautiful companion, a faithful companion, the only one who will never be unfaithful to us, rest all the companions are just lesser mortals and have been unfaithful at one point or other.

As per the Indian mythology, the soul never dies, it is indestructible, it only changes a body just like we change clothes.

Our soul is a part of God and it goes back to him. I firmly believe that there is no fiction involved in this story of the shepherd, but this is a true expression of mysteries and realities of our life, which we never pause to discover.

There is message that this book wants to convey to us!!! I have never been into writing anything ever in my life, yes not even a personal dairy, but since the time I actually started writing which was just a month back, I realized that if we just write our thoughts as they occur, the resultant has a touch of mystery, because what we wrote with all our heart and soul, sometimes tends to surprise us.

We tend to learn from what we ourselves wrote. It may sound crazy, may be the book has a effect that may appear really crazy but I am sure there are some people who would identify with me.

View all 32 comments. Preachy, pretentious, and awful portrayal of women. View all 27 comments. If books were pills, Alchemist would be a sugarcoated placebo with no real effect.

Let's call it a feel-good homily. I have never read a book as meretricious as this one. Many reviewers have pointed out the problems with this 'celebrated' novel so I'd rather not expend any more words.

Suffice it so say that this is a good example of portentous writing that is best avoided if your benchmark is quality literature.

Shelves: books-read-in Timing is everything. It deals in big, bold pronouncements of 'follow your dreams' et cetera et cetera, and it certainly makes you think about your own life and the pursuit of your own "Personal Legend" if you will.

But maybe I'm older and more cynical now, or maybe it's not cynicism so much as just seeing a reality that isn't so mystical and black and white as Paulo Coelho's, but in any event, I just wasn't buying what Timing is everything.

But maybe I'm older and more cynical now, or maybe it's not cynicism so much as just seeing a reality that isn't so mystical and black and white as Paulo Coelho's, but in any event, I just wasn't buying what ' The Alchemist ' was selling.

It's a good, quick read, I'll give it that. I enjoyed myself, and I definitely thought a little bit about my own life in the process, which I appreciate from my literature.

And while I was more or less with it for a while, I just couldn't stay on board with an ending that left me saying, "that's it? The whole book Santiago is in pursuit of his "Personal Legend", which he is told is a great treasure found in the pyramids of Egypt.

Along the way he befriends many people and makes a great sum of money, while also meeting a beautiful young woman who agrees to more or less be his life-partner, Romeo and Juliet -style which is stupid in and of itself, but more on that later.

It is at this point that he determines he has achieved a greater treasure than any he had ever dreamed of, and would go no further.

Cue the music and themes of recognizing treasure in all its forms. Santiago has a wonderful, fulfilling life laid out before him, and would most likely die a happy man by the side of his lovely wife and adoring children, all while living comfortably as village counselor of a beautiful desert oasis.

Sounds pretty nice, no? Well, that's where the book lost it's footing. Santiago is urged, coerced even, into continuing to follow his "Personal Legend", leaving behind his "love" who, it should be mentioned is a "woman of the desert" and so is completely fine being abandoned by her "love" and will simply wait and wait and wait for him, whether he ever returns or not traversing the desert and bizarrely evading a hostile army along the way by turning himself into the wind it makes about as much sense as it sounds.

In the end though, Coelho reveals to us that Santiago does, indeed, reach his "Personal Legend" in a two and a half page epilogue, where it is shoddily revealed that Santiago's long-sought after treasure is Buried treasure.

A box in the sand filled with gold coins and diamonds and jewelry and crowns, and all the other cliche treasure images you can think up.

What the hell? So what message are we supposed to take from this book then? Money is the most important thing in the world? Women are objects meant to be seen and valued for their beauty, there to serve you and wait around forever while you go on wild goose chases across continents in search of money?

Obviously I'm being facetious, and Coelho intended to say that one should follow their dreams no matter what, even if it transcends a nice, content life, so long as you are in pursuit of a life that would be even greater than you can ever imagine, sacrificing what is good now for what can be great later.

But he did so in an extremely simplistic way, and the revelation of the Santiago's treasure being literally treasure was a major disappointment.

The thing was, despite his simplicity, the book had a nice message going for a while. If Fatima was Santiago's treasure, that I could have gotten behind, even if it shows a good deal of contempt for the role of women in relationships beauty being the most important factor in deciding on a mate, as Santiago is struck by her beauty and immediately professes his love; Fatima more or less acquiesces immediately and pledges herself to Santiago no matter what, even if he must travel the desert forever in selfish pursuit of his own dreams, with no regard for her , because that is something intangible that is meaningful and fulfilling, regardless of financial standing.

But then Coelho basically goes on to say that that is just a roadblock in the way of real achievement, and that one should selfishly pursue their own dreams with no regard for those closest to them.

How a book can go on and on talking about seeing the everyday symbols and omens in life and taking heed of them, presumably leaving metaphors for life all along the way, and then have what was presumably the biggest metaphor of them all, Santiago's treasure, turn out not to be a metaphor at all, but just money?

To me, that summed up everything. I suppose Coelho realizes this, as he begins the book with a brief fable about Narcissus falling into the river because he loved staring at his reflection, and the river's disappointment in this, as the river loved gazing into Narcissus's eyes and seeing the reflection of itself.

This is a horrible little story implying that everyone is obsessed only with themselves, a sad, empty little thought that Coelho spends pages endorsing wholeheartedly, under the guise of following your dreams.

I understand that other people love this book and find it inspiring, and I think I would have felt the same way years ago, when I was just out of college and it appeared I had my whole life ahead of me and a lifetime to live it.

I'm older now, and I've found someone who I consider to be a real treasure, and while I still have dreams, I'm not willing to sacrifice the happiness that this life brings me every day in a single-minded pursuit of something that I want for selfish reasons fame, fortune, etc.

If I was Santiago, I would have never left Fatima in the first place if she truly made me happy, as Santiago claimed she did. Perhaps that makes me a coward in Coelho's eyes, not unlike the Crystal merchant from the story.

But it'd also make me not the sad Englishman, whose single-minded pursuit of his "personal legend" had cost him all his money, friends, and family and left him alone in an oasis burning lead in a tent in the vain hopes it will turn to gold.

I guess what I'm trying to say in this long-winded review, is that this book is all about being selfish and doing what you think will make you happy, regardless of everything else.

I can see why that appeals to people, especially those who want to show the doubters and find their own treasure beneath a sycamore tree, but it's sad, in a way.

We live in a culture where everyone wants selfish things like fame or money or power, just to satisfy some gaping hole in their own souls, ignoring the real problems that lead to these compulsions in the first place.

To me, this book feeds and even encourages that misplaced ideal, and that's a shame. View all 17 comments. View all 90 comments.

I once read a book that inspired me to change my whole attitude towards reading. It was a medicine of universal, cosmic impact.

Before, I had thought that books existed to enrich me, giving me knowledge, pleasure and understanding. After reading the introductory pages of this "enchanting novel" however, I learned that more wisdom can be gained from the companionship of sheep than from books, as stated by the wise young protagonist, a shepherd who uses books for a pillow and sheep for dialogue partners it is a one-way road, with the sheep as teachers, for the sheep don't learn anything from him.

In simple, unsophisticated prose, which seems to be carefully following the rubric of a Grade 6 descriptive writing assignment, I read: "The only things that concerned the sheep were food and water.

As long as the boy knew how to find the best pastures in Andalusia, they would be his friends. Yes, their days were all the same, with the seemingly endless hours between sunrise and dusk; and they had never read a book in their young lives, and didn't understand when the boy told them about the sights of the cities.

They were content with just food and water, and, in exchange, they generously gave of their wool, their company, and - once in a while - their meat.

But I do have a question or two: If the sheep are only his"friends" as long as he brings them food, do they really count as friends?

Are they not just following their needs? Is it not quite self-evident that they have not read any books in their young lives - they are sheep after all, and won't read in their old age either, I assume?

At least as far as the meat is concerned, I am sure they offer it once, and not again, and not by free choice, and generously?

As this book is to be taken seriously, I beg to accept my apology if my questions sound like sarcasm. Stave off inanition with the word morsels from this month!

Words related to alchemist warlock , diviner , seer , enchanter , charmer , shaman , conjurer , medium , witch , soothsayer , sorceress , clairvoyant , magician , occultist , necromancer , thaumaturge , fortune-teller.

Example sentences from the Web for alchemist Well, he was no Svengali, no alchemist and, obviously, they would have happened without him.

The Book Lovers' Anthology Various. Pattison Muir. Their work was guided by Hermetic principles related to magic , mythology , and religion.

Modern discussions of alchemy are generally split into an examination of its exoteric practical applications and its esoteric spiritual aspects, despite the arguments of scholars like Holmyard [9] and von Franz [10] that they should be understood as complementary.

The former is pursued by historians of the physical sciences who examine the subject in terms of early chemistry , medicine , and charlatanism , and the philosophical and religious contexts in which these events occurred.

The latter interests historians of esotericism , psychologists , and some philosophers and spiritualists. The subject has also made an ongoing impact on literature and the arts.

Although alchemy is popularly associated with magic, historian Lawrence M. Principe argues that recent historical research has revealed that medieval and early modern alchemy embraced a much more diverse set of ideas, goals, techniques, and practices:.

Most readers probably are aware of several common claims about alchemy—for example, These ideas about alchemy emerged during the eighteenth century or after.

While each of them might have limited validity within a narrow context, none of them is an accurate depiction of alchemy in general. The word alchemy comes from Old French alquemie , alkimie , used in Medieval Latin as alchymia.

Several etymologies have been proposed for the Greek term. The first was proposed by Zosimos of Panopolis 3rd—4th cent.

CE , who derived it from the name of a book, the Khemeu. The ancient Egyptian word referred to both the country and the colour "black" Egypt was the "Black Land", by contrast with the "Red Land", the surrounding desert ; so this etymology could also explain the nickname "Egyptian black arts".

Alchemy encompasses several philosophical traditions spanning some four millennia and three continents. These traditions' general penchant for cryptic and symbolic language makes it hard to trace their mutual influences and "genetic" relationships.

One can distinguish at least three major strands, which appear to be mostly independent, at least in their earlier stages: Chinese alchemy , centered in China and Indian alchemy , centered on the Indian subcontinent ; and Western alchemy, which occurred around the Mediterranean and whose center has shifted over the millennia from Greco-Roman Egypt to the Islamic world , and finally medieval Europe.

Chinese alchemy was closely connected to Taoism and Indian alchemy with the Dharmic faiths. In contrast, Western alchemy developed its philosophical system mostly independent of but influenced by various Western religions.

It is still an open question whether these three strands share a common origin, or to what extent they influenced each other.

The start of Western alchemy may generally be traced to ancient and Hellenistic Egypt , where the city of Alexandria was a center of alchemical knowledge, and retained its pre-eminence through most of the Greek and Roman periods.

The treatises of Zosimos of Panopolis , the earliest, historically-attested author fl. Zosimus based his work on that of older alchemical authors, such as Mary the Jewess , [21] Pseudo-Democritus , [22] and Agathodaimon , but very little is known about any of these authors.

Recent scholarship tend to emphasizes the testimony of Zosimus, who traced the alchemical arts back to Egyptian metallurgical and ceremonial practices.

While critical of the kind alchemy he associated with the Egyptian priests and their followers, Zosimos nonetheless saw the tradition's recent past as rooted in the rites of the Egyptian temples.

Mythology — Zosimos of Panopolis asserted that alchemy dated back to Pharaonic Egypt where it was the domain of the priestly class, though there is little to no evidence for his assertion.

His name is derived from the god Thoth and his Greek counterpart Hermes. Hermes and his caduceus or serpent-staff, were among alchemy's principal symbols.

According to Clement of Alexandria , he wrote what were called the "forty-two books of Hermes", covering all fields of knowledge. These writings were collected in the first centuries of the common era.

Few original Egyptian documents on alchemy have survived, most notable among them the Stockholm papyrus and the Leyden papyrus X.

Philosophy — Alexandria acted as a melting pot for philosophies of Pythagoreanism , Platonism , Stoicism and Gnosticism which formed the origin of alchemy's character.

According to Aristotle, each element had a sphere to which it belonged and to which it would return if left undisturbed.

True alchemy never regarded earth, air, water, and fire as corporeal or chemical substances in the present-day sense of the word.

The four elements are simply the primary, and most general, qualities by means of which the amorphous and purely quantitative substance of all bodies first reveals itself in differentiated form.

Alchemy coexisted alongside emerging Christianity. Lactantius believed Hermes Trismegistus had prophesied its birth. Others authors such as Komarios, and Chymes , we only know through fragments of text.

The 2nd millennium BC text Vedas describe a connection between eternal life and gold. According to some scholars Greek alchemy may have influenced Indian alchemy but there are no hard evidences to back this claim.

This art was restricted to certain operations, metals, drugs, compounds, and medicines, many of which have mercury as their core element.

Its principles restored the health of those who were ill beyond hope and gave back youth to fading old age. Some early alchemical writings seem to have their origins in the Kaula tantric schools associated to the teachings of the personality of Matsyendranath.

His book, Rasendramangalam , is an example of Indian alchemy and medicine. The contents of 39 Sanskrit alchemical treatises have been analysed in detail in G.

In some cases Meulenbeld gives notes on the contents and authorship of these works; in other cases references are made only to the unpublished manuscripts of these titles.

A great deal remains to be discovered about Indian alchemical literature. The content of the Sanskrit alchemical corpus has not yet been adequately integrated into the wider general history of alchemy.

Much more is known about Islamic alchemy because it was better documented: indeed, most of the earlier writings that have come down through the years were preserved as Arabic translations.

The early Islamic world was a melting pot for alchemy. Platonic and Aristotelian thought, which had already been somewhat appropriated into hermetical science, continued to be assimilated during the late 7th and early 8th centuries through Syriac translations and scholarship.

The science historian, Paul Kraus, wrote:. To form an idea of the historical place of Jabir's alchemy and to tackle the problem of its sources, it is advisable to compare it with what remains to us of the alchemical literature in the Greek language.

One knows in which miserable state this literature reached us. Collected by Byzantine scientists from the tenth century, the corpus of the Greek alchemists is a cluster of incoherent fragments, going back to all the times since the third century until the end of the Middle Ages.

The efforts of Berthelot and Ruelle to put a little order in this mass of literature led only to poor results, and the later researchers, among them in particular Mrs.

The study of the Greek alchemists is not very encouraging. An even surface examination of the Greek texts shows that a very small part only was organized according to true experiments of laboratory: even the supposedly technical writings, in the state where we find them today, are unintelligible nonsense which refuses any interpretation.

It is different with Jabir's alchemy. The relatively clear description of the processes and the alchemical apparati, the methodical classification of the substances, mark an experimental spirit which is extremely far away from the weird and odd esotericism of the Greek texts.

The theory on which Jabir supports his operations is one of clearness and of an impressive unity. More than with the other Arab authors, one notes with him a balance between theoretical teaching and practical teaching, between the 'ilm and the amal.

In vain one would seek in the Greek texts a work as systematic as that which is presented, for example, in the Book of Seventy.

The first essential in chemistry is that thou shouldest perform practical work and conduct experiments, for he who performs not practical work nor makes experiments will never attain to the least degree of mastery.

The discovery that aqua regia , a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, could dissolve the noblest metal, gold, was to fuel the imagination of alchemists for the next millennium.

Islamic philosophers also made great contributions to alchemical hermeticism. The most influential author in this regard was arguably Jabir.

Jabir's ultimate goal was Takwin , the artificial creation of life in the alchemical laboratory, up to, and including, human life. He analyzed each Aristotelian element in terms of four basic qualities of hotness , coldness , dryness , and moistness.

For example, lead was externally cold and dry, while gold was hot and moist. Thus, Jabir theorized, by rearranging the qualities of one metal, a different metal would result.

Jabir developed an elaborate numerology whereby the root letters of a substance's name in Arabic, when treated with various transformations, held correspondences to the element's physical properties.

The elemental system used in medieval alchemy also originated with Jabir. His original system consisted of seven elements, which included the five classical elements aether , air , earth , fire , and water in addition to two chemical elements representing the metals: sulphur , "the stone which burns", which characterized the principle of combustibility, and mercury , which contained the idealized principle of metallic properties.

Shortly thereafter, this evolved into eight elements, with the Arabic concept of the three metallic principles: sulphur giving flammability or combustion, mercury giving volatility and stability, and salt giving solidity.

In particular, they wrote refutations against the idea of the transmutation of metals. Whereas European alchemy eventually centered on the transmutation of base metals into noble metals, Chinese alchemy had a more obvious connection to medicine.

The philosopher's stone of European alchemists can be compared to the Grand Elixir of Immortality sought by Chinese alchemists. However, in the hermetic view, these two goals were not unconnected, and the philosopher's stone was often equated with the universal panacea ; therefore, the two traditions may have had more in common than initially appears.

Black powder may have been an important invention of Chinese alchemists. As previously stated above, Chinese alchemy was more related to medicine.

It is said that the Chinese invented gunpowder while trying to find a potion for eternal life. Described in 9th-century texts [ citation needed ] and used in fireworks in China by the 10th century, [ citation needed ] it was used in cannons by Gunpowder was used by the Mongols against the Hungarians in , and in Europe by the 14th century.

Chinese alchemy was closely connected to Taoist forms of traditional Chinese medicine , such as Acupuncture and Moxibustion.

In the early Song dynasty , followers of this Taoist idea chiefly the elite and upper class would ingest mercuric sulfide , which, though tolerable in low levels, led many to suicide.

The introduction of alchemy to Latin Europe may be dated to 11 February , with the completion of Robert of Chester 's translation of the Arabic Book of the Composition of Alchemy.

Although European craftsmen and technicians preexisted, Robert notes in his preface that alchemy was unknown in Latin Europe at the time of his writing.

The translation of Arabic texts concerning numerous disciplines including alchemy flourished in 12th-century Toledo, Spain , through contributors like Gerard of Cremona and Adelard of Bath.

These brought with them many new words to the European vocabulary for which there was no previous Latin equivalent.

Alcohol, carboy, elixir, and athanor are examples. Meanwhile, theologian contemporaries of the translators made strides towards the reconciliation of faith and experimental rationalism, thereby priming Europe for the influx of alchemical thought.

In the early 12th century, Peter Abelard followed Anselm's work, laying down the foundation for acceptance of Aristotelian thought before the first works of Aristotle had reached the West.

In the early 13th century, Robert Grosseteste used Abelard's methods of analysis and added the use of observation, experimentation, and conclusions when conducting scientific investigations.

Grosseteste also did much work to reconcile Platonic and Aristotelian thinking. Through much of the 12th and 13th centuries, alchemical knowledge in Europe remained centered on translations, and new Latin contributions were not made.

The efforts of the translators were succeeded by that of the encyclopaedists. In the 13th century, Albertus Magnus and Roger Bacon were the most notable of these, their work summarizing and explaining the newly imported alchemical knowledge in Aristotelian terms.

Albertus critically compared these to the writings of Aristotle and Avicenna, where they concerned the transmutation of metals. From the time shortly after his death through to the 15th century, more than 28 alchemical tracts were misattributed to him, a common practice giving rise to his reputation as an accomplished alchemist.

Roger Bacon, a Franciscan friar who wrote on a wide variety of topics including optics , comparative linguistics , and medicine, composed his Great Work Latin : Opus Majus for Pope Clement IV as part of a project towards rebuilding the medieval university curriculum to include the new learning of his time.

While alchemy was not more important to him than other sciences and he did not produce allegorical works on the topic, he did consider it and astrology to be important parts of both natural philosophy and theology and his contributions advanced alchemy's connections to soteriology and Christian theology.

Bacon's writings integrated morality, salvation, alchemy, and the prolongation of life. His correspondence with Clement highlighted this, noting the importance of alchemy to the papacy.

He noted that the theoretical lay outside the scope of Aristotle, the natural philosophers, and all Latin writers of his time.

The practical, however, confirmed the theoretical thought experiment, and Bacon advocated its uses in natural science and medicine.

In particular, along with Albertus Magnus, he was credited with the forging of a brazen head capable of answering its owner's questions. Soon after Bacon, the influential work of Pseudo-Geber sometimes identified as Paul of Taranto appeared.

His Summa Perfectionis remained a staple summary of alchemical practice and theory through the medieval and renaissance periods. It was notable for its inclusion of practical chemical operations alongside sulphur-mercury theory, and the unusual clarity with which they were described.

Adepts believed in the macrocosm-microcosm theories of Hermes, that is to say, they believed that processes that affect minerals and other substances could have an effect on the human body for example, if one could learn the secret of purifying gold, one could use the technique to purify the human soul.

They believed in the four elements and the four qualities as described above, and they had a strong tradition of cloaking their written ideas in a labyrinth of coded jargon set with traps to mislead the uninitiated.

Finally, the alchemists practiced their art: they actively experimented with chemicals and made observations and theories about how the universe operated.

Their entire philosophy revolved around their belief that man's soul was divided within himself after the fall of Adam.

By purifying the two parts of man's soul, man could be reunited with God. In the 14th century, alchemy became more accessible to Europeans outside the confines of Latin speaking churchmen and scholars.

Alchemical discourse shifted from scholarly philosophical debate to an exposed social commentary on the alchemists themselves. Pope John XXII 's edict, Spondent quas non-exhibent forbade the false promises of transmutation made by pseudo-alchemists.

These critiques and regulations centered more around pseudo-alchemical charlatanism than the actual study of alchemy, which continued with an increasingly Christian tone.

The 14th century saw the Christian imagery of death and resurrection employed in the alchemical texts of Petrus Bonus , John of Rupescissa , and in works written in the name of Raymond Lull and Arnold of Villanova.

Nicolas Flamel is a well-known alchemist, but a good example of pseudepigraphy , the practice of giving your works the name of someone else, usually more famous.

Although the historical Flamel existed, the writings and legends assigned to him only appeared in His work spends a great deal of time describing the processes and reactions, but never actually gives the formula for carrying out the transmutations.

Most of 'his' work was aimed at gathering alchemical knowledge that had existed before him, especially as regarded the philosopher's stone.

Bernard Trevisan and George Ripley made similar contributions. Their cryptic allusions and symbolism led to wide variations in interpretation of the art.

During the Renaissance , Hermetic and Platonic foundations were restored to European alchemy.

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